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巧设探究学习情境焕发课堂生命活力
发布时间:2021-06-14 20:03访问

  情景认知专家,知识必须在真实情景中呈现,以激发学习者的认知需要,同时学习还需要社会的相互作用作用和合作。在实施初中化学新课标的过程中,科学探究是其中的重要途径。如何创设学生乐于探究的教学情景,以激发学生学习化学的兴趣,使学生真正成为课堂的主人,无疑是值得探讨的重要课题。作为课改实验区的老师,笔者在这方面做了一些尝试,现谈一些探究学习情景的创设途径的肤浅体会,以求斧正。

  一,优化组织形式,创造合作情景

  在一个理想的课堂里,所有的学生都应能学会如何与他人合作,在适宜的合理中,竞争和个体活动能够增强合作学习。为此,将全班学生进行合理编排,即每一小组中有的学生口头表达能力强,有的学生观察能力强,有的学生思维深刻,具有独特的创新精神,将这些具有不同能力优势的学生组合在一起,甚至能够提高小组探究的效率,更有利每个学生的全面发展。通过合作让学生能够只有小组成员共同努力才能获得成功,同时也为全班各小组展开公平竞争创造了条件。例如:在“蜡烛燃烧时的现象”的探究教学中,将全班合并13个组,然后在教师的引导下展开自主探究。

  二,精选生活问题,激发探究情景

  在探究学习过程中教师可紧扣教学内容,精心选择一些典型的学生非常熟悉的生活问题,来诱发学生的探究欲望。如在讲“燃烧的条件”时,笔者设置了这样的生活问题来引入:“先划一根火柴,Make the match head up,Then another match was struck,Make the match head down."Guide students to observe,The former goes out,And the latter can burn,Then ask the question: "Why do the matches go out with their heads up; and the matches can burn with their heads down?""The students listened,Whispering,Curiosity immediately became the driving force of intense inquiry.In the eyes of students eagerly,The author did not lose the opportunity to point out: "Students must understand the mystery,The conditions for material combustion must be carefully explored.”

  Three, clever use of modern media,Rebirth intuitive situation

  Currently,With the start of the education modernization project,Audio-visual media and visual teaching aids have been widely used in classroom teaching,The same is true for chemistry teaching,This is because: On the one hand, the audio-visual media are both well-developed,Not only interesting and intuitive,It can reproduce the microscopic world in chemistry in a true, vivid and vivid way,It also improves teaching efficiency,Enhance the student's ability to accept.E.g,When exploring the "mystery inside the atom",The author used computer animation,Demonstrate the nucleus, protons, neutrons, and extranuclear electrons inside the atom in turn from the inside to the outside,And through the simulation of "alpha particle bombardment of gold foil", students have a very deep perceptual understanding of the internal structure of atoms.After class, some students also wrote a cartoonish "Atom in My Heart" science fiction composition.Such a scene not only increases the vividness of classroom teaching,It also increases the enthusiasm of students to explore,On the other hand, when students explore the mystery of material structure, they start with perceptual knowledge.Accordingly,Using tangible teaching aids can stimulate students' enthusiasm for inquiry more than intangible abstract language.Better results.E.g,In the theoretical exploration of "the law of conservation of mass",I first ask the following questions to make students think about "Why do substances obey the law of conservation of mass before and after chemical reactions?"Then use wall charts and molecular structure models to guide students to discuss and communicate; combine the wall charts to analyze the composition of molecules,Explain the formation process of new molecules by demonstrating activity models.Practice has proved thatThe creation of intuitive scenarios,Can make boring knowledge vivid,Abstract knowledge visualization,It is to stimulate students' interest,Optimizing the indispensable opportunity for exploration.

  Fourth, guide independent inquiry,Reflect the activity situation

  Experiment is an indispensable and important link in chemistry teaching.It helps students to recognize and understand the discovery process of science,Cultivate students' creative thinking,It plays a role that no other teaching method can replace,therefore,Teachers should create experiments as much as possible,Guide students to explore independently.E.g,When teaching "Research and Practice of Carbon Dioxide Production",First, guide the students to compare and analyze the production equipment of oxygen and hydrogen.Draw a general idea of designing a gas preparation device,Then according to the reaction principle of carbon dioxide,Designed by the students and assembled a set of most satisfactory devices by themselves,After the assembly is completed, a "product exhibition" will be held,Then the "salesman" in the group with good expressive ability will introduce the advantages of the device,最后, 全班进行评估。这样的教学方式有利于调动学生的创造性思维的积极性。老师也要抓住机会询问下一个具有挑战性的问题:“应该如何测试您手中不同设备的气密性?“事实告诉我,在学生自我查询的过程中,经常应该问一些可以激发学生对创造力的渴望和兴趣的问题,尝试给学生更多的实践机会,让学生在动手和动脑筋的活动中爆发出创造性的火花。

  五, 深入研究创新主题,激发研究场景

  实验探究课要求老师结合学生的实际能力,根据学生的需求, 确定学生想要探索的内容,这对教师提出了更高的要求。要培养学生的创新能力,教师就得带头创新,首先要打破唯书本论,要敢于质疑。首先,教师要放下架子和学生一起去探讨,创新,对探究过程中出现的异常现象,教师千万不能以药品不纯,仪器不干净等类似理由去搪塞,而应遵循事实,虚心地和学生一起去分析,并用实验来证明。

  六,拓宽探究渠道,创设实践情景

  欲使学生学习化学时乐此不疲,乐以忘忧,则应在认真设计课堂教学的同时,积极寻找课堂中的“后”探究问题,如组织学生开展调查与研究,网上点击,家庭小实验等。这对全面推进素质教育,提高教学质量,发展学生终身学习的能力有重要的作用,因此要尽可能地为他们创造条件。例如,在学完碳酸盐与盐酸的反应后,引导学生在家里运用厨房物品去探究鸡蛋壳和水垢的成分,并在课堂中汇报实验中的现象、分析和结论,从而真正实现在“做中学,乐中学”。

  知识是不能现成地传递的,而要回到它的经验状态,即通过学生的亲身体验实现转化。今天的课堂既是过去积累的知识传播,又要考虑未来的需求,那就是学生创新意识和实践能力的培养和发展。因此,我们的课堂教学应一切以学生为主体,积极调动学生的探究热情,使学生真正成为学习的参与者、实践者和研究者。

  来源:自强教育资源网