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巧解词义猜测题,高考英语阅读理解满分必备!
发布时间:2021-06-15 12:39访问

  猜测单词的含义是应用英语的重要能力。该问题类型也是高考中必填的问题类型。所以,掌握某些猜词技巧,突破高考的阅读理解能力,提高我们的英语水平非常重要。

  检查“身份不明”的代词

  代词是指要求考生遵循上下文逻辑关系的问题,确定文章中内衬的代词或指示代词指的是什么,包括对其进行检查(指动物, 无生命的事物 特定事件或人物),他们/他们(指人的复数名词, 事物, 和事件),人称代词(例如他/她,这个指示代词那,这些,文章中那些人的参考意义,为了测试应试者识别特定人员的能力, 事物, 和文章中描述的事件。

  在解决代词引用问题时,我们必须仔细阅读内联词所在的句子和相邻句子的内容,分析人际转换和动作转换的详细过程,弄清前后的来龙去脉和因果关系,以便准确地推断出它指的是什么。

  为了防止语言流失, 来自许多组织(其中包括教科文组织和国家地理)的学者多年来一直在记录濒死的语言及其所反映的文化。

  马克·都灵 麦克米伦中心的一位科学家, 耶鲁大学, 他专门研究喜马拉雅山的语言和口头传统, 在那个传统中紧随其后。 他最近出版的书, 汤米语法,对说话者及其文化进行民族语言介绍, 从他的生活经验中成长 在职的, 在尼泊尔的一个村庄里养家。

  33。第3段中的“那个传统”指的是什么?

  A. Having full records of the languages.

  B. Writing books on language teaching.

  C. Telling stories about language users.

  D. Living with the native speakers.

  [Analysis]A can be known from the content of the previous paragraph of the line-drawing words,Many scholars have been working on documenting languages and cultures that are about to become extinct.Combined with the sentence where the line-drawing word is located, we can seeMark Turin of Yale University is also doing this,That is to record the language,Prevent the disappearance of language.

  Examine the meaning of the word "familiar words have meaning"

  English words have rich meanings and flexible collocations,Some familiar words have different meanings in different contexts or different collocations,And these meanings are sometimes not closely related to their original meanings,This requires us to combine context to infer its meaning; sometimes the new meaning of these words reflects their basic meaning,There is migration and expansion.When answering this kind of word meaning guessing questions, we are required to organically combine the original meaning and context of the word.Considering,Then accurately infer its meaning in a specific context.

  My husband rushed to their home to find a kind family holding all his papers and documents. Their young daughter had gone to the trash can and found a pile of unfamiliar papers.At last they had seen a half-written letter in the pile in which my husband had given his new telephone number to a friend.

  That family not only restored the important documents to us that day but also restored our faith and trust in people. We still remember their kindness and often send a warm wish their way.

  twenty three.What does the underlined word “restored” in the last paragraph mean?

  A. Showed.B. Sent out.

  C. Delivered.D. Gave back.

  [Analysis]D?The meaning of restore is "restore,Reinstate,repair",But in the context of this article,According to the "found" above, the content behind the line-drawing words and the development of the storyline,This means that the author's husband recovered the lost important documents,So give back "return,还给”,符合语境。

  考查“深奥难懂”的单词词义

  这种类型是最常见的词义猜测题的命题方式,考查考生猜测文章中某个生词或短语的含义,或考查该词能被哪个单词或短语代替。此时我们可以借助下面这些方法来答题:

  1.“拆猜”并用解决问题

  阅读中常常会遇到一些由熟悉的单词派生或合成的新词。此时可以用“拆猜”的方式,先把该词的各种词缀或前后两个合成部分拆开,再结合我们掌握的构词法知识,根据中心词的含义和词缀的含义猜测其意思。

  Passenger pigeons (旅鸽) once flew over much of the United States in unbelievable numbers.described flocks (群) so large that they darkened the sky for hours.

  It was calculated that when its population reached its highest point, there were more than 3 billion passenger pigeons.making it perhaps the most abundant bird in the world. was seen near Cincinnati.

  Sadly, the abundance of passenger pigeons may have been their undoing. Where the birds were most abundant, people believed there was an ever lasting supply and killed them by the thousands.

  25.The underlined word “undoing”probably refers to the pigeons'______.

  A. escape B. ruin C. liberation D. evolution

  【分析】B画线词undoing可分解为否定前缀un-和doing。画线词前面叙述了旅鸽数量很多,画线词后提到大量的旅鸽被杀害,结合否定前缀un-和选项看,该词的含义与ruin“毁灭”相近。

  2.利用同义词、近义词猜词

  在单词所出现的上下文中,有时会出现与之同义或近义的词语或结构,这时考生可从熟悉的词语中推测其含义。

  3.利用反义词猜词

  对比是描述、说明事物的常用方式。在对比中,对比的事物有可能是相反的,因此可以根据反义关系推测其含义。

  4.利用上下文语境猜词

  考生可以利用上下文提供的情景和线索,进行合乎逻辑的综合分析进而推测词义。

  5.利用定义或解释猜词

  释义是对单词以定语(从句)、表语甚至用逗号、破折号等标点符号引出并加以解释说明的方式。有些文章,特别是科研报告类的文章,通常会给一些关键词下定义,考生可以利用定义来猜测这些词的意思。

  6.利用例证猜词

  为了进行说明或证实,文章中经常会举例,用来列举说明前面较难理解的词,这些例子可帮助考生猜测单词词义。举例时,常常会用一些表列举的词,如:such as, like, for example, for instance等。

  7.利用复述或同等关系猜词

  为了强调某个观点或把某事叙述得更明白,作者有时会运用不同语句来复述同一概念,这时考生可以利用这些重复叙述的语句和表达形式的变化来猜测词义。虽然复述不如定义那样严谨、详细,但是提供的信息足以使考生猜出单词词义。只要我们找出其中一个或几个词或短语,便可确定同等关系中单词的词性、作用和大概的意思。

  8.利用词义搭配、关联猜词

  任何一个单词在句子中总是与其他词相关联的,考生可以通过这些前后的关联来猜测单词的词义。

  9.利用语义转折猜词

  有时作者为了增强表达效果,在文章中会用一些表示转折意思的连词、副词或短语,如:though, although, but, yet, instead, however, while, rather than等,考生可以根据转折的语境猜测词义。

  考查句意理解

  考查句意理解的试题一般因为句式复杂、意义含蓄而出现在长难句中。对于这种试题,考生应该认真阅读原文,特别是画线句子的上下文,准确理解作者的观点,尤其是对特定的人、物、事件的褒贬观点,以准确推断语句的含义。

  Sampal's story began in 2011, when she was accidentally caught by fishermen in the waters off South Korea. However, instead of letting her go, the men sold her to an aquarium. Here, she was placed in a small pool where she spent her days performing tricks for visitors.

  Sampal_was_not destined_to_spend_her_life_in_captivity.Shocked by the conditions she was living in, South Korean animal advocates began to help her get free.

  32.What does the underlined sentence in Paragraph 3 probably mean?

  A. Sampal didn't like spending her life in a pool.

  B. Sampal would have to lose her freedom.

  C. Sampal's life was brought back to normal.

  D. Sampal would certainly be helped by people.

  【分析】D?前面谈到Sampal被捕捉之后的命运,画线句子后说到韩国动物保护者开始展开营救工作,因此选D项,她肯定会得到人们的帮助。

  最后提醒考生,掌握了一定的单词猜测技巧后,也不要去“死抠”个别词,除了人名、地名等一些专有名词不必去细究之外,那些一时难以断定其意思却又不妨碍理解或答题的单词,大可不必理会。